Tuesday, October 24, 2006

Link for Further Lessons!

Please Click the following Link for Further Lessons


For ease of handling, further Lessons are published in the blog




Wednesday, October 11, 2006

Lesson - 53 : Inversion of Intervals

Now one more new concept we will learn and that is the Inversion of Intervals…

Many of you know that, in mathematics, any degree of angle can be expressed as the Complimentary of 180 degree also.

Same way, here also the interval measured in one direction can be complimented in the other direction backward (from the same base note) and that’s simple called inversion.

For example remember the Middle C.

If we measure the interval to a note G which is placed above in the Stave (meaning, in the key board you will travel upward to right from Middle C to locate this G..) the interval is Perfect 5th as we know that.

Suppose if we want measure the interval for G which is placed below the middle C in the stave, which will be coming in the Bass Clef..(meaning, you will travel downward to left from middle C to locate this G..), the interval if measure this will be Perfect 4th!

Keeping the C at center, the interval of C to G upwards – Perfect 5th. The inversion of this interval is C to G downwards is Perfect 4th.

Like this we may locate any inversion of intervals.

But there is a simple mathematical solution to that.

Any interval if you invert it, you have to deduct the interval number from 9, and the quality or name of the interval will be inverted as follows :

So Simple…!

For example C to D is a Major 2nd.

Its inversion ( C to D located in reverse direction) will be Minor (9-2 =7) so Minor 7th.

(You check it through semitone methods also).

Some more examples to explain :

And so on…….!

So with the above understandings and methodlogies, we can more or less master the intervals of any notes.

And Chords are built up of two or more intervals !

We will see about the Chords in our next session

Lesson - 52 : Refresh Knowledge on Intervals

Let us recall and reinforce some of our earlier understandings on Intervals.

(Please Refer to Lesson 22 ) (and other previous related lessons as you required!)

Intervals measure the distance between two notes and also the name given to them indicates the quality of interval.

We saw that Major Scale has the Perfect Intervals for 4th and 5th and all other intervals w.r.t. Tonic are Major intervals.

In case of Harmonic Minor Scale, the 3rd and 6th intervals are Minor and all other intervals are same as Major scale.

Then we also learnt the method of finding the intervals of any note to a note above it, this was measuring the number of semitones they were separated and based on the table we can name the intervals.

The reference table is reproduced below again :

In order to get any interval between any two notes, based on the difference of how many Semitones they are separated the following table can be used : (bracketed names are theoretical possibilities only, though sometimes may not have direct relevance in case of WCM)

Alternative way to calculate any interval is,

- assume the Major scale on the base note and
- measure the relative distance of the Major scale interval and
- adjust for the variations to get the final correct intervals.

For example, if we have to find the intervals between F and B, remember the scale of F major,
and we know in F-Major we get B-flat as the fourth note to give the Perfect 4th interval.

But in our case, we need the interval of B which is a semitone higher.

So the interval has to be Augmented 4th.

(To check it, if you measure the actual semitones separation based on the Keyboard visualization, this comes to 6 semitone; as per the above table, this is called the Augmented 4th since F and B is separated by 4 letters alphabetically, it cannot be 5th.)

So interval measurement ability is one pre-requisite skill while naming the chords etc.

So have some practice on that.

Aim is that even if we could not tell mentally, check leisurely using the keyboard figure and verify from the table and confirm yourself.

With time passing, you can do that mentally and quickly also.

Our aim is to understand the concept and not writing some exams now..!

So don’t worry about any complexity initially. In fact everything is simple mathematics of addition or subtraction !

Certain other basic formulae you shall remember are :

In nut shell, the path of semitone wise progress is

(Diminished---Minor---Major---Augmented) or

In our next session we will see a new Concept "Inversion" of intervals.

Monday, October 09, 2006

Lesson-51: Harmony - The Basic Composing Tool - Part-2

So, to recapitulate once again, each of the vertically integrated notes in a harmonised music (e.g. four part or three part harmony) form the Chords….!

So please visualize the composing a song as a composing of chords structured one after another…!

What you are composing is not a single line song, but you are composing the whole orchestrations simultaneously…!

Though conceptually it looks simple, to compose in that fashion, you need a tremendous knowledge and control of complete concept of WCM.

Usually, in our film composing, what the composer forms the melody with his harmonium etc is (the first level composing to get approval from Director/Producer) the single line composing.

But while writing for orchestration, it will be the harmony writing of balance parts (three or four or multiple parts of harmony as required)!

IR writes such hundreds of notes forming chords and harmony in a flat half an hour approximately….!

Absolutely unbelievable speed……!

Each individual instrumentalists copy their parts separately while he goes on composing…..and so when composing is over, the full song is ready for rehearsal….!

You may feel that the simulatensous composing of multilines is complicated, but if you understand the basic principles and rules of chords and part writing based on Harmony, atleast the framework is very clear and starightforward…!

So what I am trying to make you visualise is a Top-Down approach of a song composing….!

To compose you shall follow Harmony Part writing…!

Part writing consists of forming Chords in succession !

Single Chord formation consist of writing notes vertically in the inter-related way.

That inter relation (in vertical direction) is all about the individual notes and the Chemistry / Physics/ Mathematics…of their INTERVALS….!

So, the fundamental learning block is “Interval”…and their quality…!

Now you can appreciate, why we were so much elaborating and stressing about the Intervals, while learning Major and Minor scales, in our earlier lessons …!

So, we will reinforce our knowledge of intervals, then learn the concept of chords and then the very minimum basics of Harmony writing…! In that order….!

I want to create some interest in you regarding Harmony subject, by requesting you to visualize the subject as a strategic key to unravel the mystery of composing a song in WCM way……which is the IR’s way…!

Listing and explaining of various rules of harmony is beyond the scope of my present effort…!

(A simple way to say that is “beyond my knowledge and capabilities”….! )

Becasue, The subject is so vast and amazing…to make anybody puzzled….

But our aim is, as usual, to understand the basics, concepts…in the mathematical way ….. and in a simple way….!

That will help you to appreciate the IR’s effort in a better manner…!

And who knows…one day some of you will get into the subject so deep to become a composer in future……!

To carry on the torch of IR…into another generation….!

Lesson-50: Harmony - The Basic Composing Tool - Part-1

We are back to WCM track….!

I would request you to just revise the Lesson-3 once again, where I tried to answer about the basic question of What is harmony ?

As said earlier, Harmony is the multi-line concept of music, but we must remember these multi-lines are integrated vertically also, note by note.

This vertical connection is what the Chord concept is all about !

Let us go into some simpler understanding…!

While listening to any IR song, you can listen, visualize, and feel the various voices and instruments all are complimenting each other, so beautifully !

Now, you will be wondering, if a single line song composing needs so much pains taking effort, how much will be the efforts to be made in composing each of the instruments that are accompanying the voice…?!

Your query of worry is true to some extent, in that, most of the composers see the various accompanying lines of instruments as a separate entity and struggle to compose them.

Even after synchronising them, the outcome of combined song+instruments may be either successful or unsuccessful depending upon the experience and ingenuity of the composer in composing and getting the output.

So, these old time MDs (or generally MDs not using WCM-Harmony as basic tool of orchestration) used to claim credit for orchestration and usage of 40 instruments songs, 60 instruments, 100 instruments etc etc….!

That is Not the case with IR…..!

The Complexity OR the Simplicity, in whatever way you look at it, its one and same for IR…!

Whether two instruments passage or 20 instruments passage, for IR’s composing, it’s fundamentally based on Harmony (which usually viewed as Four Part Harmony in WCM ! .......meaning in a lay man term, a four line integrated music…!)

For less than four, the principle and effort is same and you only hide the not-required-now parts !

For more than four, you either multiply some parts or take the clue from any one part and further develop that…!

The point here is, when you compose, all the lines of voices and instruments are to be seen as integrated item and not as a separate individual lines !

We can enjoy the SPB voice separately, the Violins separately, the Bass Guitar separately, etc….!

But in reality, all the notes of these are interconnected ….every moment of it…!

So next time when you enjoy a song of IR, visualize it as an integrated system of lines !

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